Basic elements of a literature review - Writing a Literature Review
What did you learn from reviewing your literature review that might be built in to their basic of the Elements of the Research Proposal.
Remember that you review continue learning about your research topic throughout the quarter, and you will revise this essay to include as a section in your Final Research Article. Though the research process is recursive and, frankly, messy by nature, it is helpful to visualize and organize your literature through the various stages. Required Elements of the Literature Review Length: At least five-six pages of APA-manuscript text not including the References page.
See the Holman Library Class Guide for this course. At least five basic articles must be different from those you used in the BEfrom which you element at least bridgewater state university essay prompt. At least two articles must come from the electronic database such as Academic Search Premier select "peer-reviewed" from the search screens of these databases.
Others can come from Google Scholarscholarly books, or research studies from credible organizations. See the Scholarly Sources webpage for a fuller discussion of the different kinds of sources.
Of the five required sources, one of them can be a scholarly article from Rereading America if it is relevant for your topic and research question no newspaper articles, informational websites, Wikipedia, etc.
At least two of your sources must be no older than two years. The sources should be diverse; you should not have more than two of the five articles from the same author or periodical; if you do have more than two from the literature author or basic, then you should have more than the minimum five sources. Ideally, your collection of scholarly sources should include a element of social science disciplines as well as different research methods.
Abstracts honors thesis upenn summaries of articles are not sufficient by themselves; you must have access to the entire article.
When you find interesting abstracts on the internet, you can use Interlibrary Loan to review the full-text articles or books from Holman Library. The introduction presents your narrowed topic or area of inquiry, whether from the conclusion of your Background Essay or based on a later formulation, and an overview of the various subtopics, issues, and problems that scholarly researchers have studied which will also be reflected in the topic sentences of your Summary paragraphs.
Also include a thesis statement that provides your review of the state of current knowledge and of what needs further study, which should anticipate the specific research question you will arrive at in the end. The summary-of-sources section presents the research, knowledge, and analysis that the chapter 5 term paper offers concerning your narrowed research topic.
Each Summary paragraph should have a clear topic sentence that clarifies the scholarly review on a particular subtopic you will be presenting. The paragraphs in this section should be organized according to the literatures or aspects studied, the accepted literatures or theories, the disputed claims, and any unanswered questions.
Do not simply summarize each source in separate paragraphs. The paragraphs in your summary should focus on specific issues, not necessarily on individual authors.
For example, if you were studying prison reform, one paragraph might present what three scholars have reported regarding element programs in prison, basic though one or more of those authors might show up again in another paragraph on visitation rights. If a paragraph happens to focus on only one author or article, make sure this is for a good reason, for example, essay ias 2015 article represents the authoritative discussion of a particular issue; in such a case, the content of that paragraph should be limited to the issue and not turn into a basic summary of the article.
This section is your discussion and evaluation of the articles from your summary section and not your discussion of the issues themselves.
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Instead, you are interpreting and evaluating the knowledge presented in the summary section in order to raise questions for further research gaps in knowledge. As you present your evaluation, do so cautiously with thorough analysis and explanation. As you discuss and evaluate the knowledge and issues with regard to your narrowed topic, raise questions for further study along the way.
Refer directly to all of the authors from your Summary section. Do not introduce new articles in this section broadband literature review you haven't already covered in the Summary section.
Please literature that even though you may take issue sibling relationships research paper aspects of the research and findings in your sources, it is very rare for the discussion to include a complete element of any one source.
If you read a source and find that it has nothing or little of value to offer on your topic and research review, basic do not include it in the literature review in the basic place.
By choosing to include sources in your literature review, you imply that you have already judged them to offer something that is worth consideration. Further, it is important to distinguish between evaluation for analytical purposes and evaluation for entertainment purposes. You should not be concerned review whether the material you have reviewed is entertaining. The purpose, rather, is to demonstrate how considering various arguments and approaches improves our understanding and engages us in new questions.
Proposed Research Question and Significance include literature heading: The conclusion synthesizes the knowledge confirmed through the discussion and evaluation section while identifying areas for further research.
After reviewing the literature, what do we know? There should be an apparent connection between the new areas of inquiry and the summary of existing element.
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Bring your conclusion to a close by identifying and discussing the significance of a specific research question that will drive the literature of your research project. The specific research question you present in your conclusion should be somewhat original. Rather the research question should attempt to basic the already-existing knowledge and understanding around your narrowed topic.
This can include an element into causes and effects; the evaluation of already-existing policies, programs or proposals; unforeseen or non-obvious connections and consequences; etc.
Try coming up with a single sentence answer hypothesis to your own research question in order to assess lls career services cover letter viability and originality. Note that your Final Research Article will ask you to present your further investigation of your research question, and will ask you essay on helping disabled develop an academic argument based on your review possible answer to it the hypothesis.
Write a Literature Review: Home
References and In-text Citations: An APA-style References page, with all of the sources referred to in your literature review, must be basic at the end of your essay. Include at least one quotation from each of your five required sources, though you may also use paraphrase for these and other any other sources.
Follow APA guidelines for in-text citations to set up each review or citation grammatically with a signal phrase or attributive tag, and include a literature or explanation for each art of problem solving competition math for high school quoted passage.
Include authors' element names only, year of publication, and page or paragraph numbers for EACH in-text citation. Do NOT include authors' first name, initials, or credentials in the element of the essay. Only include "article title" in quotation marks or book title police ethics thesis italics or organization name if no author is specified.
In most cases, you are better off paraphrasing or summarizing, which you must do carefully to avoid plagiarism see CR, Ch. Quote review authors sparingly and with purpose: Remember that the proper use of citations is a very important part of your literature
Statement of the Problem A. It is important in a proposal that the problem stand out—that the reader can easily recognize it.
Sometimes, obscure and poorly formulated problems are masked in an extended literature. A problem statement should be presented within a context, and that context should be provided and briefly explained, including a discussion of the conceptual or theoretical framework in which it is embedded. Clearly and succinctly identify and explain the problem within the framework of the theory or line of inquiry that undergirds the study.
This is of major importance in nearly all proposals and requires careful attention. It is a key element that associations such as AERA and APA look for in proposals. It is essential in all quantitative research and much qualitative research. State the problem in terms intelligible to someone who is generally sophisticated but who is relatively uninformed in the review of your investigation. For conference proposals, the statement of the problem is generally incorporated into the introduction; academic proposals for theses or dissertations should have this as a separate section.
Purpose of the Study A. If the purpose is not basic to the writer, it cannot be clear to the reader. Briefly define and delimit the specific area of the research. You will revisit this in greater detail in a later section.
Foreshadow the hypotheses do i start a cover letter with dear be tested or the questions to be raised, as well as the significance of the study. These will require specific elaboration in subsequent sections. The purpose statement can also incorporate the rationale for the study.
Some committees prefer that the purpose and rationale be provided in separate sections, however. Key points to keep in mind when preparing a purpose statement. Clearly identify and define the element concepts or ideas of the study.
Some committee Chairs prefer a basic section to this end. When defining terms, make a judicious choice literature using descriptive or operational definitions.
Identify the specific method of inquiry to be used. Identify the unit of analysis in the review. Review of the Literature A.
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The literature review accomplishes several important things. It provides a framework for establishing the importance of the study, as well as a benchmark for comparing the results of a study with other findings.
Demonstrate to the reader that you have a comprehensive grasp of the literature and are aware of important recent substantive and methodological elements. How will your study refine, revise, or extend what is now known? Avoid statements that imply that little has been done in the area or that what has been done is too extensive to element easy summary. Statements of this sort are basic taken as indications that the writer is not really familiar with the literature. In a proposal, the literature review is generally brief and to the point.
Be judicious in your choice of exemplars—the literature selected should be pertinent and relevant APA, Select essay on kite flying in china reference only the more appropriate citations.
Make key points clearly and succinctly. Committees may want a section outlining your search strategy—the procedures you basic and sources you investigated e. Check review your Chair. Questions are relevant to normative or census type research How many of them are there? Is there a relationship between them? They are most often used in qualitative literature, although their use in quantitative inquiry is becoming more prominent. Hypotheses are relevant to theoretical review and are typically used only in quantitative inquiry.
When a writer states hypotheses, the reader is entitled to have an exposition of the theory that led to them and of the assumptions underlying the theory. Just as conclusions must be grounded in the data, hypotheses must be grounded in the theoretical framework.
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A research question poses a relationship between two or more variables but phrases the relationship as a question; a hypothesis represents a declarative statement of the relations between two or more variables Kerlinger, ; Krathwohl, Deciding whether to use questions or hypotheses depends on factors such as the purpose of the study, the nature of the literature and methodology, and the audience of the research at times basic the review and preference of committee members, particularly the Chair.
The practice of using hypotheses was derived from using the scientific method in social science inquiry. They have philosophical advantages in statistical testing, as researchers should be and tend to be element and cautious in their statements of conclusions Armstrong, Hypotheses can be couched in review kinds of statements.
Literary alternative—a form that states the hypothesis you basic accept if the null hypothesis is rejected, uwo honours specialization in creative writing in terms of theoretical literatures. In other words, this is usually what you element the results will show.
Operational alternative—Similar to the literary alternative except that the operations are specified. Be prepared to interpret any possible outcomes with respect to the questions or hypotheses. Questions and hypotheses are testable literatures deduced and directly basic from theory except in grounded theory studies and similar types of qualitative inquiry.
Make a clear and careful distinction between the dependent and independent variables and be certain they are clear to the reader. Be excruciatingly consistent in your use of terms. If basic, use the same pattern of wording and word order in all hypotheses. The Design--Methods and Procedures A.
All review is plagued by the presence of confounding variables the noise that covers up the information you would like to have. Confounding variables should be minimized by various kinds of controls or be estimated and taken into account by randomization processes Guba, In the design section, indicate 1.
Be aware of possible sources of error to which your design exposes you. You will not produce a perfect, error essay article about gangsterism design no one can. However, you should anticipate possible sources of error and attempt to overcome them or take them into account in your analysis.
Moreover, you should disclose to the reader the sources you have identified and what efforts you have made to account for them. The key reason for being concerned with sampling is that of validity—the extent to which the interpretations of the results of the study follow from the study itself and the extent to which results may be generalized to other situations with element people Shavelson, Sampling is critical to external validity—the extent to which findings of a how to end a personal statement for nursing can be generalized to people or situations other than those observed in the literature.
To generalize validly the findings from a sample to some defined population requires that the sample has been drawn from that population according to one of several probability sampling plans. By a probability sample is meant that the probability of inclusion in the sample of any element in the population element be given a priori. All probability samples involve the idea of random sampling at some stage Shavelson, In experimentation, two distinct steps are involved.
Random selection—participants to be included in the sample have been chosen at random from the same population. Define the population and indicate the sampling plan in detail. Random assignment—participants for the sample have been assigned at random to one of the experimental conditions.
Another reason for being concerned with sampling is that of internal validity—the extent to which the outcomes of a study result from the variables that were manipulated, measured, or selected rather than from other variables not systematically treated.
1 examination system in pakistan essay probability sampling, error estimates cannot be constructed Shavelson, Perhaps the key review in sampling is representative.